Heart and vascular disease is generally known as cardiovascular disease, in which the disorder occurs in the functioning of the heart and blood vessels. Arteries of different organs like the heart, kidney, lungs, and brain are damaged due to fatty lumpiness in the arteries. It is a life-threatening and lethal disease.

Essential facts about heart and Vascular diseases

  • Low-income countries have a high death rate due to heart and vascular diseases.
  • Being overweight causes the heart and vascular disease.
  • An unhealthy diet is also the reason for heart and vascular diseases.
  • Heart and vascular diseases can be prevented by avoidance of tobacco, alcohol, etc.

Types of Heart and Vascular Diseases

1. Coronary heart disease

Heart and vascular disease is a heart disease in which the blood flow is interrupted and blocked by fatty substances in the arteries. 


The symptoms of coronary heart disease are as follows:

  • Pain in the chest, known as angina
  • Trouble in breathing
  • Pain in the whole body
  • Feeling of nausea
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fainting


The causes of coronary heart disease are as follows:

2. Strokes

It usually occurs when the brain’s blood supply is blocked and the blood vessel ruptures. Brain tissues do not get proper oxygen. These strokes can damage the brain and can cause death. The mini strokes are called TIA, in which the temporary blood supply of the brain is blocked. The person who experiences strokes immediately needs treatment. Otherwise, it will be lethal.


The symptoms of strokes are as follows:

  • Face:  The stroke patient’s face (especially eyes and mouth) fell to one side, and he could not smile properly. 
  • Arms: Weakness occurs in the arm, due to which the patient cannot lift his arms upward.
  • Speech: The person with strokes cannot talk, and their speech becomes slurred.

3. Peripheral arterial disease

It is a type of disease in which the blood vessels are blocked and narrowed, which carry blood to the legs. Fatty deposits in the arteries cause it.


The symptoms of this disease are as follows:

  • Weakness
  • Hair loss
  • Pain in legs
  • Ulcer in legs
  • Cold hands
  • Cramps
  • Aches


The doctor suggests the following treatment to control the severe complications of peripheral arterial disease.

  • Aspirin and some other medicine.
  •  Statin medicine to control cholesterol.
  • Avoid smoking.
  • Immediate surgery to cure the blocked blood vessels.

4. Aortic disease

In this disease, the lower left ventricle of the heart and the main artery aorta stop functioning.


The symptoms of the aortic disease are as follows:

  • Heart murmuring 
  • Severe chest pain
  • Dizziness, fainting, and fatigue
  • High or low heartbeat
  • Trouble in breathing
  • Loss of appetite 
  • Low weight


The causes of aortic disease are as follows:

  • High and low blood pressure
  • Age factor
  • Injury to the heart
  • Infections in the heart and arteries
  • Use of tobacco 
  • High level of cholesterol 
  • Increased blood sugar levels 


Treatment of aortic disease is as follows:

  • Echocardiogram: Ultrasound of the heart is done to treat the aortic disease.
  • Electrocardiogram: Test used to check the heart’s electrical activity with the help of electrodes or sensors.
  • X-rays of the chest: To identify the condition of the lungs and heart.
  • Cardiac MRI: Radio waves are used to examine the heart’s clear view and measure the main artery’s size. 
  • Ct scan: It is used to examine the aorta’s size and measure the amount of calcium in the main artery. 

5. Arrhythmia

It is a type of disease in which a patient has an irregular heartbeat. 


The symptoms of arrhythmia are as follows:

  • A feeling of fluttering heartbeat Fhigh blood
  • Pain in the middle of the chest
  • Shortness of breathing, mostly during physical activity
  • Feeling of fainting
  • Dizziness
  • Fatigue, weakness, Tiredness
  • Anxiety
  • Weak eyesight
  • Sweating


The causes of arrhythmia are as follows:

  • Infections of the heart
  • Fever lasts more than two weeks
  • Wrong balance of sodium and potassium
  • Heart stiffness
  • Blocked blood supply
  • Hypertension
  • Alcohol, tobacco, drugs, caffeine, or marijuana 


The treatments for arrhythmia are as follows:

  • Electrocardiogram: Small electrodes are ingested in the chest, arms, and legs to determine the heart’s electrical activity. 
  • Holter monitor: This test measures the waves and electrical signals of the heart. 
  • Tilt table test: It determines the patient’s blood pressure or oxygen level.

6. Deep vein thrombosis

It is a type of disease in which blood clotting occurs in the blood vessels and veins of the body. It is also known. 


The symptoms of deep vein thrombosis are as follows:

  • Sudden swelling of arms and legs 
  • Pain and stiffness in legs
  • Discomfort in standing and walking
  • Discolored skin such as bluish or red
  • Migraine 
  • Severe pain in the abdomen 
  • Trouble breathing, especially during physical activity
  • Cough
  • Fainting


Venous thrombosis is caused by:

  • Genetic condition
  • Chemotherapy and cancer 
  • Family history
  • Injury or surgery
  • Pregnancy
  • Age factor (above 40)
  • Alcohol & tobacco
  • Pills to control birth


The treatments of deep vein thrombosis are as follows:

  • Contrast material is ingested in the veins to examine the blood clotting and blood flow in the blood vessels. 
  • Venous duplex ultrasound
  • Computed tomography, also known as CT scan
  • Blood thinners like anticoagulants.

7. Fibromuscular dysplasia

This type of disease causes the medium size arteries to become large and narrow in the body, restricting the proper blood flow. Mostly, this disease appears in the brain and kidneys. 


The symptoms of this disease are as follows:

  • Kidney does not function properly
  • Increased blood pressure
  • Migraine
  • Dizziness
  • Mini strokes
  • Pain in the neck
  • Blurry vision
  • Weakness


The causes of Fibromuscular dysplasia are as follows:

  • Changing hormones
  • Family history


Following treatment options can be used to cure Fibromuscular dysplasia:

  • Duplex ultrasound
  • Angiogram CT scan
  • Magnetic resonance angiogram
  • Catheterization-based angiography


  • https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/cardiovascular-disease/#:~:text=Cardiovascular%20disease%20(CVD)%20is%20a,increased%20risk%20of%20blood%20clots.
  • https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/21493-cardiovascular-disease
  • https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/science/heart-and-vascular-diseases
  • https://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/guide/diseases-cardiovascular