Coronary Artery Disease is a severe heart condition in which the arteries supplying oxygen-rich blood to the heart become narrowed. Inflammation of veins and increased cholesterol level causes the blockage of the blood flow, oxygen, and nutrients to the heart’s muscles. It results in a severe heart attack and leads to death.

Symptoms:

At first, symptoms become unnoticeable, but when a severe blockage occurs, it leads to a heart attack. Symptoms of coronary artery diseases are as follows:

Causes of coronary artery disease:

It is a heart disease in which the blood flow is interrupted and blocked by fatty substances in the arteries. The walls of arteries are blocked, and blood can not flow throughout the body. The causes of this disease are as follows:

  • Diabetes: It is a long-lasting disease that results in high blood sugar. It occurs when the pancreas stops functioning and cannot produce insulin.
  • High blood pressure: Due to high blood pressure, arteries become less elastic, and blood flow or oxygen decreases throughout the body, which causes severe heart problems and chest pain, also called angina.
  • Smoking: It includes inhaling or exhaling the burning plants’ fumes that affect every body part. It results in lung cancer or coronary artery disease, which leads to death.

Risk Factors:

  • Age: Due to aging, veins and arteries do not work correctly and lose elasticity.
  • Gender: Due to hormonal changes, it usually occurs in women.
  • Family history: If your close relative, like a father, or sibling, has a coronary artery, you are more likely to have it at 55.
  • High cholesterol: Fatty substances in your blood cause it. The causes of high cholesterol are an unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, obesity, taking drugs, smoking, and drinking alcohol.
  • Obesity: It is a chronic medical condition in which the patient suffers from abnormal or excessive body fat. It increases the chances of heart disorders, diabetes, high blood pressure, cancers, or other diseases.
  • Kidney disorder: It is a chronic disease in which the kidney becomes damaged and does not filter the blood. The symptoms of a kidney disorder are nausea, shortness of appetite, fatigue, weakness, muscle cramps, swelling, itchy skin, high blood pressure, chest pain, etc.
  • Stress: It is a natural feeling, but it damages the arteries and increases the risk of coronary artery disease.
  • Sleep apnea: It is a sleeping disorder in which abnormal breathing patterns occur during sleep. It results in a sudden drop in blood oxygen level and increases blood pressure.
  • Intake of triglycerides: High dosage of triglycerides damages the arteries and leads to coronary artery disease.
  • Homocysteine: It is an amino acid used by the body to maintain the tissues and produce proteins. Its excess causes coronary artery disease.
  • Preeclampsia: During pregnancy, blood pressure escalates the proteins in the urine, which results in coronary artery disease.
  • Arrhythmias: It is an irregular heartbeat in which one’s heart beats too slowly, rapidly, or with a distinctive pattern. The types of arrhythmias are as follows;
  • Tachycardia: When one’s heart beats faster than average, it is known as tachycardia.
  • Bradycardia: When one’s heart beats too slowly, it is known as bradycardia.

Preventions: Instead of severe treatments, doctors suggest you change your lifestyle. To prevent coronary artery disease, lifestyle changes include;

  • Control your weight
  • Walk regularly
  • Exercise daily for 30 minutes to one hour
  • Maintain a healthy diet
  • Avoid smoking
  • Stress management
  • Eat fruits, vegetables, and grains

Test for coronary artery disease: The doctor may suggest one of the following tests to diagnose coronary artery disease;

  • Electrocardiogram: It is a painless test used to determine the heart’s activity. This test involves electrodes connected to the chest, arms, or legs.
  • Echocardiogram: This test identifies how well the heart pumps blood. Sound waves are used to develop images of the heartbeat.
  • CT scan or MRI scan: If the infection spreads, the doctor will suggest a CT scan or MRI test of your brain, chest, or other body parts.
  • Cardiac catheterization: In this test, a thin, flexible tube is inserted into the patient’s blood vessel to diagnose the heart disorders and treat accordingly.

Treatment and medications for coronary artery disease: The best treatment for coronary artery disease is a changing lifestyle. Moreover, Medications include:

  • Cholesterol drugs: The doctor suggests a drug to decrease the cholesterol level in the patient. The medication includes fibrates, statins, etc.
  • Beta-Blockers: The doctor suggests these medicines to reduce the heartbeat and blood pressure. It is also used to treat heart attacks and stroke in some patients. Beta-blockers include;
  • Aspirin: It is used for thinning the blood and preventing blood clotting. Always consume it after consulting with your healthcare provider.
  • Nitroglycerine: This medicine is used to cure the heart arteries. It is also beneficial to reduce pain in the chest.
  • Ranolazine: It is used to treat chest pain.
  • Surgeries for coronary artery disease: The doctor suggests surgery to treat the blocked and widen arteries. The surgeries include:
  • Coronary angioplasty
  • Coronary artery bypass

 

 

References:

  • https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronary-artery-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20350613#:~:text=Coronary%20artery%20disease%2C%20also%20called,are%20almost%20always%20to%20blame.
  • https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/16898-coronary-artery-disease

https://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/coronary-artery-disease